Description of the stages of bone maturation by Bjork´s carpal radiography of children and adolescents in two groups of different ethnic ancestry
Objective: This study described the stages of bone maturation according to Bjork´s method through carpal radiography in children aged 8-15 year-old belonging to the indigenous population Ticuna (Amazonas) and the black population of Puerto Tejada (Cauca).
Materials and methods: 72 children Ticuna indigenous community, located in Leticia (Amazonas) and 80 children of African descent in the municipality Puerto Tejada (Cauca) were studied. Children tested aged
8 to 15 year-old. Children were transferred to a specialized radiology center where carpal radiographs of both hands were taken. The height and weight measurements were obtained by using a digital scale and Conair ® brand plastic tape, which was placed on the wall. For analysis of bone maturation, was used the method of Björk.
Results: It was observed that there is a significant relationship between bone development and sex (p=0.001), ie, that women are more likely to have more advanced stages of bone maturation that men. When bony maturation stages according to ethnic groups were related, they find that people of African descent have a higher bone development that indigenous. It was evidenced that children at older ages presented higher bone maturation stages.
Conclusion: It was determined that the African descent was significantly related to bone development (p=0.005), as compared to children of Amerindian descent. In addition, it was determined that there
is a relation between bone developmentand women (p=0.001) and age groups (p=0.000). In general, when comparing these two populations was found that the ancestry, age and gender are factors that affect bone development of children and should be taken into account when starting any treatment.
Key words: Carpogram, ethnic descent, indigenous, African bone maturation, Bjork radiographic method/ descent.
2. Johnson L, Llewellyn CH, van Jaarsveld CHM, Cole TJ, Wardle J. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Infant Growth: Prospective Analysis of the Gemini Twin Birth Cohort. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(5):e19918.
3. Hägg U, Taranger J. Maturation indicators and the pubertal growth spurt. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1982;82(4):299- 309.
4. Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1995; 107(1):58-66.
5. Flores-Mir C, Nebbe B, Major PW. Use of Skeletal Maturation Based on Hand-Wrist Radiographic Analysis as a Predictor of Facial Growth: A Systematic Review. The Angle Orthodontist. 2004; 74(1):118-24.
6. Greulich WW, Pyle SI. Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1959; 238(3):393.
7. Björk A, Helm S. Prediction of the Age of Maximum Puberal Growth in Body Height. The Angle Orthodontist. 1967; 37(2):134-43.
8. Rakosi T, Jonas I, Rateitschak K. FarbatlantenderZahmdizin : Kieferorthopaedie Diagnostik. Stuttgart,
Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag; 1989.
9. Grave KC, Brown T. Skeletal ossification and the adolescent growth spurt. Am J Orthod. 1976; 69(6):611-9.
10. Lai EH-H, Liu J-P, Chang JZ-C, Tsai S-J, Yao C-CJ, Chen M-H, et al. Radiographic Assessment of Skeletal Maturation Stages for Orthodontic Patients: Hand-wrist Bones or Cervical Vertebrae? Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2008; 107(4):316-25.
11. Rondón F, Osorio JC, Peña ÁV, Garcés HA, Barreto G. Diversidad genética en poblaciones humanas de dos regiones colombianas. Colombia Médica. 2008; 39:52-60.
12. Bernal JE. Human diversity in Colombia. Science. 1995; 267(5199):774.
13. Aragón N, Bastidas C, Bedón N, Duque P, Sánchez M, Rivera S, et al. Rasgos morfológicos dentales coronales en dentición temporal y permanente: Distancia biológica entre tres grupos indígenas del Amazonas Colombiano. Revista Odontológica Mexicana. 2008;12 (1):13-28.
14. Fishman LS. Chronological Versus Skeletal Age, an Evaluation of Craniofacial Growth. The Angle Orthodontist. 1979; 49(3):181-9.
15. So LL. Skeletal maturation of the hand and wrist and its correlation with dental development. Aust Orthod J. 1997; 15(1):1-9.
16. Molinari L, Gasser T, Largo RH. TW3 bone age: RUS/CB and gender differences of percentiles for score and score increments. Annals of Human Biology. 2004; 31(4):421-35.
17. Soegiharto BM, Cunningham SJ, Moles DR. Skeletal maturation in Indonesian and white children assessed with hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae methods. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics 2008; 134(2):217-26.
18. Usui T, Uematsu S, Kanegae H, Morimoto T, Kurihara S. Change in maximum occlusal force in association with maxillofacial growth. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research. 2007; 10(4):226- 34.
19. Bedoya A, Salcedo M, Villavicencio J, Acosta B. Evaluación de la maduración ósea mediante radiografía del carpo en niños y adolecentes afro-colombianos dePuerto Tejada, Cauca, 2007. Rev Estomat 2009; 17(1):19-25.
20. Ceglia A. Indicadores de Maduración de la Edad Ósea, Dental y Morfológica. Serial online [Internet]. 2005. Available from: http://www.ortodoncia.ws/ publicaciones/2005/.
21. Girgis R, Rochester N. A maturational comparison of racial groups during adolescence. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. 1994; 105(6):617.
22. Alkhal HA, Wong RWK, Rabie ABM. Correlation between Chronological Age, Cervical Vertebral Maturation and Fishman’s Skeletal Maturity Indicators in Southern Chinese. The Angle Orthodontist. 2008; 78(4):591-6.
23. Soegiharto BM, Moles DR, Cunningham SJ. Discriminatory ability of the skeletal maturation index and the cervical vertebrae maturation index in detecting peak pubertal growth in Indonesian and white subjects with receiver operating characteristics analysis. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.
24. Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA. An Improved Version of the Cervical Vertebral Maturation (CVM) Method for the Assessment of Mandibular Growth. The Angle Orthodontist. 2002; 72(4):316- 23.
25. Perinetti G, Contardo L, Gabrieli P, Baccetti T, Di Lenarda R. Diagnostic performance of dental maturity for identification of skeletal maturation phase. The European Journal of Orthodontics. 2012; 34(4):487-92.